Domain Name System (DNS) is a global, distributed database that is based on a hierarchical naming system. DNS name resolution is used to name DNS-based names (friendly usernames such as ) to IP addresses. Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 domains inher- ently use DNS services, and DNS is the default name resolution method used. Microsoft clients that are using Windows 9 x , Windows Me, or other ccna exam early implementations of Windows operating systems rely on NetBIOS names to identify computers on the network. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 use a service called Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) for compatibility with applications and services that use NetBIOS services to map the NetBIOS name to an IP address. HOSTS and LMHOSTS files are local files that provide hostname-to-IP address resolution. However, these files must be maintained manually.
This is not a common method of resolving IP addresses, as it is administrator intensive and prone to configuration errors. If no name resolution method is configured for NetBIOS, the final way that address reso- lution is attempted is through the use of subnet broadcasts. You typically want to avoid these broadcasts since they are directed to all computers on the subnet as opposed to being sent only to the specified computer as a unicast transmission. After you have installed and configured the TCP/IP settings, you can test the IP configuration using the ipconfig , ping , and nbtstat commands. These commands are also very useful in troubleshooting IP configuration errors. You can also graphically view connection details through Local Area Connection Status. Each command is covered in detail in the following subsections.
The ipconfig command displays your IP configuration. Table 8.4 lists the command switches that can be used with the ipconfig command. Shows verbose information about your IP configuration, including your computer’s physical address, the DNS server you are using, and whether you are using DHCP Shows IP information for all compartments In Exercise 8.4, you will verify your configuration 70-680 with the ipconfig command. This exer- cise assumes that you have a network adapter installed in your computer and have completed Exercise 8.3. In the Command Prompt dialog box, type ipconfig and press Enter. Note the IPv4 address, which should be the address that you configured in Exercise 8.3. In the Command Prompt dialog box, type ipconfig /all and press Enter. You now see more information. Close the command prompt window when you have finished viewing the information. The ping command is useful for verifying connectivity between two hosts. The command sends an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Echo Request to a remote computer, and receives an ICMP Echo Reply if the remote computer is available.